Ronald F. Inglehart (born September 5, 1934 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin) is a political scientist at the University of Michigan. He is director of the World Values Survey, a global network of social scientists who have carried out representative national surveys of the publics of over 80 societies on all six inhabited continents, containing 85 percent of the world’s population … (full long text).
He says: ” … industrialization caused the movement of traditional values towards more rational and non-religious values, whereas in the present post-industrialization era there is a movement of the values of survival toward those of self-expression, the expression of one’s own identity”. (full text).
The surveys conducted in December 2004 and April 2006 were supported by grants from the National Science Foundation to U-M political scientists Ronald Inglehart and Mark Tessler. Moaddel collaborated on those surveys, then added some of the same questions to an October 2006 survey of 7,730 Iraqis supervised by the Multinational Forces Assessment Effects Group. In March 2007, Moaddel collaborated with Iraqi social scientist Munqith Daghir, adding the same questions to another survey of 7,411 Iraqis. The surveys were conducted by a private Iraqi research group headed by Daghir, the Independent Institute for Administration and Civil Society Studies. (full text, August 2, 2007).
Ronald Inglehart -USA
As University of Michigan political scientist Ronald Inglehart has shown, drawing on the massive World Values Survey, people in societies around the globe become increasingly focused on the meaningfulness of work and consumption, and less preoccupied with basic material security as wealth becomes ever more assured.
This tends to breed a sense of open exploration and tolerance that are corrosive to traditional social norms, but also a distrust of established authorities, including government. Widespread wealth creates both a sense of psychological safety and an expectation that we should get what we want, creating a demand for personalized gospels heavier on salvation than self-denial, and a willingness to buck convention when it chafes. (full text, July 30, 2007).
… He studies how cultural transitions in industrial societies influence individual autonomy and self-expression, politics, motivation to work, sexual and religious norms, and other central society and political orientations. (full text).
Read: World ‘Happiest’ Countries versus Countries with the Highest Levels of ‘Subjective Well-Being’.
Professor Inglehart’s ongoing research focuses on cultural change and its consequences. To explore this, he is coordinating a world-wide survey of mass values and attitudes, the World Values Survey. This data base reveals astonishingly strong linkages between the values and beliefs of mass publics and the presence or absence of democratic institutions, supporting the thesis that political culture plays a crucial role in the emergence and survival of democracy. The findings indicate that the evolution of industrial society tends to make democratic political institutions more likely, partly because the publics of these societies are becoming increasingly likely to want democratic institutions, and increasingly adept at getting them. This transformation does not come easily or automatically. Determined elites, in control of the army and police, can resist pressures for democratization … (full text).
The traditional secularization thesis needs updating. Religion has not disappeared and is unlikely to do so. Nevertheless, the concept of secularization captures an important part of what is going on. This book (Sacred and Secular, Religion and Politics Worldwide) develops a theory of secularization and existential security, building on key elements of traditional sociological theories and revising others. This book demonstrates that: (1) The publics of virtually all advanced industrial societies have been moving toward more secular orientations during the past fifty years; but (2) The world as a whole now has more people with traditional religious views than ever before– and they constitute a growing proportion of the world’s population. Though these two propositions may seem contradictory, they are not. The fact that the first proposition is true, helps account for the second—because secularization has a surprisingly powerful negative impact on human fertility rates. (full text).
Ronald Inglehart argues that economic development, cultural change, and political change go together in coherent and even, to some extent, predictable patterns. This is a controversial claim. It implies that some trajectories of socioeconomic change are more likely than others–and consequently that certain changes are foreseeable. Once a society has embarked on industrialization, for example, a whole syndrome of related changes, from mass mobilization to diminishing differences in gender roles, is likely to appear. These changes in worldviews seem to reflect changes in the economic and political environment, but they take place with a generational time lag and have considerable autonomy and momentum of their own. But industrialization is not the end of history. Advanced industrial society leads to a basic shift in values, de-emphasizing the instrumental rationality that characterized industrial society. Postmodern values then bring new societal changes, including democratic political institutions and the decline of state socialist regimes. To demonstrate the powerful links between belief systems and political and socioeconomic variables, this book draws on a unique database, the World Values Surveys. This database covers a broader range than ever before available for looking at the impact of mass publics on political and social life. It provides information from societies representing 70 percent of the world’s population–from societies with per capita incomes as low as $300 per year to those with per capita incomes one hundred times greater and from long-established democracies with market economies to authoritarian states. (full text).
Read: Is There a Global Culture? The Globalization of Media and the Culture of Societies.
In Quest of World Order in An Age of Globalization, by Ambrose Y C King;
Disambiguate with others ‘U of M‘;
Wieviel Geld Sie verdienen oder haben spielt fast keine Rolle mehr, sobald die Armut vorbei ist.