Personalities of the IPPNW, Refuge Eberhard judge Joint founder of the section of the German Federal Republic of the IPPNW, Psychoanalytiker, ehem.
Prof. Horst-Eberhard Richter
Director of the Sigmund Freud institute, first managing director and speaker of the IPPNW of the German Federal Republic, honour member of the board of the German IPPNW.
On 28 April 1923 in Berlin born, refuge Eberhard judge buildup as an only child of a leading engineer. After Hitler Youth and work service he was drawn eighteen-year old to the military and served into an artillery regiment at the Russia front. Briefly before the transfer of its troop after Stalingrad it got sick with a lethal Diphtherie. With 22 years it comes into war shank and experiences only with its return of the death of its parents, who were murdered two months after end of war on a walk close of their village by two drunk Russians.
1962 take over judge one of the first German chairs for Psychosomatik at the University of pouring and develop the department to a prominent center for psychosomatische medicine. Its first books become too internationally recognized classical authors psychoanalytischer literature, in whom judge compiles a new understanding of familiar caused neuroses. For judges Psychoanalyse is not only a deep-psychological working method, but, and perhaps, an instrument of the clearing-up of an socialanalytically understanding science of humans and society zuallererst. However in the years 1972 to 1981 it writes the five books, which introduced this new era of its ganzheitlichen concept of Psychoanalyse and which become the obligation reading for a broad layer politically enlightened citizen.
Certainly the departure of the student movement at the beginning of the 70’s lent important impulses to its acting. The health politician Ellis Huber meant to him: “the realization and change process of my generation in the health and social work accompanied refuge Eberhard of judge of books. Every time questions about the correct way emerged, if goals became unclear, discouraged faint us or endangered over courage us, a new work by it, which pointed horizons out and donated more clarity, appeared punctual. I arose with this technical like human pilot services healthly-political and also medicine-politically from year to year more courageous became.”
Supported by competent representatives in the hospital, judge left ever more frequently his there traditional place to discuss and in demonstrations and seat blockades participate in order to work with social fringe groups, with pupils and students; he becomes joint founder of the section of the German Federal Republic of the IPPNW of the nuclear war “, talked with politicians, advised her, and raised its voice landup, landab.
Judge reported also at international congresses, for example on “psychological effects of the life under the nuclear war threat” (Cambridge 1982), to “The Physicians Role into the Prevention OF Nuclear was” (Moscow, 1985) and “The Danger and Prevention OF Nuclear was” (Washington, 1986). In Germany its contributions found 1981 at the congress of the physician and basis initiatives of the German Federal Republic “are capable we of the peace?” and “psychosocial medicine and prevention of militarization readiness” large medium effect. It always participates since this time in demand adviser and Visionaer in prominent place.
When already in February 1982 to the establishment of a section of the German Federal Republic to Frankfurt/Main one invited, one spoke of splitting the physician movement, because the basis initiatives had already expressed in January approximately a association-moderate supraregional roof federation. In this difficult situation judge showed his analytic ability and his sensitive political gift: It went with colleagues out of the physician initiatives to the founders’ meeting and affected the political and contentwise direction of these IPPNW of the German Federal Republic from the outset in basis democracy and kollegialen Miteinanders. An establishment of association did not take place first, but the IPPNW of the German Federal Republic created as loose union served the connection between the international federation and the national activities. The physician initiatives worked further autonomously as independent regional initiatives.
Judge transferred voluntarily the work of the first office to pouring and beside Ulrich God stone, Helmut Koch and Knut Sroka to the first speaker advice of the IPPNW of the German Federal Republic was selected. He wrote the famous “Frankfurt explanation”, in which everyone admitted with its signature itself to refuse itself to any war-medical training and advanced training. In somewhat modified form as “new Physicians Oath” became the explanation, after it judges on that 2. IPPNW world congress brought into Cambridge had taken over, from the world federation
In his auto+biographic book “wanderer between the fronts” described judge its goal with the IPPNW: “in contrast to other IPPNW physicians, who protested particularly with the averaging of the medical clearing-up over the devastating effect of the nuclear weapons against the armements policy, I dedicated myself in the own speeches to more the psychological task, the threat – by a verstaendigungspolitik to replace. The will of humans to koopererien over the borders away peacefully is to be promoted likewise, as one must recognize that the fear of the horrenden destruction force of the nuclear arsenals does not have to do anything with cowardice or lack of defense readiness, but a healthy signal reaction represents in relation to the strategy of the atomic insanity.”
On that 2. 1982 judge expressed medical congress for the prevention of the nuclear war in Berlin “to the controversy over the medical responsibility under the nuclear war threat”: “I doubt meanwhile much whether we would in this way already do enough. Because with this kind of the effectiveness we remain still in the context before of the in such a way designated “moralteiligen” society. The large public still accepts it as normal, if church people, writers and now also physicians oh and pain about the atomic armament complain. Those are lifted out groups, to which the society surrendered traditionally aspects of conscience. Naturally it is right itself… that the physicians remind the public of the terrible medical excessive demand, which a nuclear war would mean. Seelsorger, writers and the medical profession on verbal reminding are limited so long, found one their occurrence completely troestlich in order, paradoxically partially… It concerns to visibly make our direct political joint responsibility in the way that we unite the artificially separated roles as the medical profession and as political citizens and so that also humans in our environment in addition energizes in relation to the general basic questions ganzheitliches thinking and responsible acting to develop.”
Judge in its contribution “fear, hope, resistance” deepens this thought (1984) by calling to the resistance, when answer to “the narcissus tables fear”, its name for the fear before itself, which he sees behind the itself self threatening by rockets. Instead of their protest to leave by permission in the society over the atomic armament “jammernd air to make” should the physicians resistance “gettoisieren” carry out: “therefore it the readiness for the resistance, whose way marks” the Frankfurt explanation “. As many other groups of the peace movement we want to disturb practically a comprehensive process of the social militarization, where we are switched on as physicians in its mechanisms. The thousands of colleagues, who stand behind the “Frankfurt explanation”, not to hesitate to advance toward a civil defense law in preparation decided where it the fatal illusion for our population arrange, we could in our country a war, which would be after the valid strategic concepts with security a nuclear war, by still so subtly through roof width unit a protection program survive.”
Judge sees medical behavior always political. For it redundantly, what immensely political factor the allegedly unpolitical physician is to be said represents, who believes to withdraw itself to pure medicine and with the fact made possible that each politics with its tolerance can be made. The obligation in principle of all lady doctors is to protect lives and not political systems. The lady doctor and the physician may not be to the authority at the disposal. For judges medicine must be pazifistisch in the sense of its life-supporting task. Wars are for it no natural occurences and none the human existence inherent constant. It denies the statement, humans is from nature with the argumentation, humans is from aggressive in contrast to the animal in the situation to steer its aggressive impulses into socially innocuous courses: “we physicians assume anyhow obviously since ever our occupational group is not subject to a natural obligation to destructive behavior. Because like otherwise we could regard the hippokratischen oath as us practically obligating a standard!”
Also the term of “physicians within social responsibility”, which since the union of the two German sections in March 1991 as name extension one decided, is filled through judge ideas with lives, not least by since 1994 again into the IPPNW taken up topic “medicine and conscience”, which win medium attention at the congresses in Nuernberg 1996 and attaining 2001 many. In its speech “he compares medicine and conscience” (Nuernberg 1996) between the physician as an author in the third realm, if the social responsibility is pervertiert by the medical profession, and the conscience for physician inside as “the original source of the Mitfuehlens and an inescapably audible stimulus for helping. “that is the internal necessity to take by feel at suffering other portion connected directly with the urge to assist it. In the conscience is a categorical reminder, but it is at the same time a signpost/guide to a deep satisfaction, for satisfaction, if spurred helping can take place.” Besides it reminds before a further Pervertierung of the social responsibility of the physician by the genetic engineering, which could serve the “requirement for omnipotence a society on perfect wrong liberty”.
Richter entwarf zusammen mit Huber die erste Fassung der Nürnberger Erklärung, die nach mehreren Überarbeitungen dem Kongress “Medizin und Gewissen” zur Diskussion gestellt wurde. Schließlich wurde diese Erklärung der Basis für den “Nürnberger Kodex 1997″.
Nach dem NATO-Krieg gegen Jugoslawien 1999 wurde die Friedensbewegung von den Medien für tot erklärt, trotz Demonstrationen und Proteste. Richter organisierte mit anderen Mitgliedern und MitarbeiterInnen der IPPNW den Kongress “Kultur des Friedens” als Antwort darauf und zeigte durch die hohe Teilnehmerzahl und Exzellenz der inhaltlichen Referate, dass die Friedensbewegung in Deutschland sich gewandelt hat aber keineswegs gestorben ist.
Niemand hat die bundesdeutsche Ärztebewegung für die Verhütung des Atomkriegs mit seinen Gedanken, Analysen, Reden, Aufrufen, Workshops und Aktivitäten so beeinflusst wie Horst-Eberhard Richter.
Biographie Professor Dr.med. Dr.phil. Refuge Eberhard judge:
born on 28 April 1923 in Berlin;
Physician, Psychoanalytiker, Psychotherapeut and philosopher;
1943-1949: Study of the medicine;
Philosophy and psychology in Berlin;
1949: Graduation to the Dr. phil.;
1950-1954: psychoanalytische training at the citizen of Berlin Psychoanalyti Institut;
1957: Graduation to the Dr. med.;
Starting from 1955: First as Assistenzarzt, then as an upper physician at the neurological and psychiatric hospital of the FU Berlin;
1959-1962: Director/conductor citizens of Berlin of the Psychoanalyti institute;
1962-1992: Acting director of the Psychosomati university center in pouring;
Since 1992: Acting director of the Sigmund of Freud institute Frankfurt;
After 1980: Commitment in the peace movement and in the ecology movement;
1981: Joint founder of the West German section of the physicians against the nuclear war (IPPNW);
Since 1987: Cooperation into “internationally the Foundation for the Survival and development OF Humanity”;
Excerpt from an Interview the University Koblenz, in 1995:
Refuge Eberhard judge – Doubt against adjustment. Psychoanalyse and politics, Hamburg 1995 (hoping man and Campe), 316 S., 39,80 DM
As Sigmund Freud 1910 with a small number of fellow combatant the “international Psychoanalyti combination” had based and the organizational bases for a propagation of his original, disturbing realizations had thus put, designated it very openly the substantial counter acting forces, which would oppose its efforts. He regarded these counter acting forces not as bad willing, but as necessary. Accordingly he formulated pointed: “the society will not hurry to grant to us authority you must in the resistance against us be, because we behave critically against it; we prove it that them had a large portion of causing the neuroses themselves… “, in order to add afterwards with restrained optimism, also “bold self-assertion” (P. 19):
“the most drastic truths are finally heard and recognized, after the interests hurt by them and the Affekte waked by them expenditure-raved themselves. It went so far still in such a way, and the unwanted truths, which we have to give to Psychoanalytiker of the world, will find the same fate. Only it will not very rapidly happen; we must be able to wait .” (emphasis D Verf.)
Refuge Eberhard judge places this expression Freuds against the starting point of its very alive and encouraging written book. The title “doubt against adjustment. Psychoanalyse and politics “refer to the culture-critical intention of judge. In 21 chapters judge undertakes the far-seizing attempt to eruieren both and up-to-date socially caused tendencies verwurzelte historically us to precarious, finally tendentious incapacitating adjustment achievements to existing conditions causes. Its basic attitude is here – all populist, Zynismus as ideal time features zelebrierenden to the defiance – by carefulness, coined/shaped by clock, paired with sticking on commitment and unambiguously unfolded analyses. Its book places it a remark in front, which shows its objective, but evenly also the Widerstaendigkeit of the selected topic:
“… Who gives way to adjustment obligations tactically, probably knowing that he could resist them with justifiable risk it will not no more notice and also should, gradually the unreasonableness of demands for adjustment, i.e., which do not check up own Gefuegigkeit also more than escape reaction. Everything appears normally: conditions, which it surrenders, and which renouncement of Gegenwehr, which he does not experience evenly no more as renouncement.”
To contents: The first chapters are historically oriented. From the extensive studies judge the emancipatory , socialist effort of numerous pioneers of the Psychoanalyse unfolds Reichmayrs, Muehlleitners and Fallends outgoing. Important it is it here to make also emotional the Vitalitaet of the discussions at that time comprehensible. These were advanced particularly by Berne field, realm, Simmel and Fenichel, suffocated “to their activities under the threat and pursuit by the Nazis provisionally.” (P. 23) the headings of the first chapters correspond to this starting point: “the Psychoanalyse must provoke the society”, “attempts, to connect the Psychoanalyse with socialism”; “two publish against Hitler – the others remain mute” and “concessions up to the self denial”. Judge reminds again of the efforts in particular into the 20’s and 30’s to connect the Psychoanalyse with the marxism. Some came to the Psychoanalyse, because this appeared to them as an addition of its sozialreformerischen commitment. In a certain way Freud divided this commitment, which showed up among other things in its support of two pazifistischen communist manifestos, in which the abolishment of the military service was demanded: “you is a form the farmhand shank. That the peoples bear it habitually, only one proof is more for their blunting influence. Military training is training of body and spirit in the art of killing. Military training is education to the war. It is perpetuating the war spirit.”
Aggravating social conditions did not leave themselves much time to deepen these klarsichtigen analyses.
In “two publish against Hitler – the others remain mutely” remind judges of two authors, who did not leave it with remaining rather general efforts, but the danger of up-pulling fascism very consciously recognized and publicly scientifically analyzed: William realm and George Simmel . Simmel, whose important writings are generally accessible for few years again, published for example 1932 the courageous socialpsychological essay “national socialism and public health”, in which he wrote and others:
“the Hitler movement is now, psychologically seen, a re-establishment of the state of war for their trailers. It prevails again absolute command authority of the irresponsible leader, that removes all different one the responsibility and thus its debt feelings. The enemy stands again outside of the community. This time it is the Jew, the Marxist, the other-thinking one – it is the goal, in reality phantom for the Abreaktion of aggressive kannibalischer striving.” (P. 33)
Such studies did not excite ungeteilte joy within the psychoanalytischen guild as well known by any means. They encountered in Vienna and Berlin rather “partly on entered silence, partly violent refusal.” (P. 36) it came to the measure regulation William of realm, 1934 to the exclusion.
For judges the “precedent realm” (P. 40) represents a turning point in the history of the Psychoanalyse, which led to the Marginalisierung of society-critical efforts, whose subsequent effects until today – how judge in the book tries to work out again and again -, is provable. The material social force “was not worked on” at that time by the majority of the analysts, but occupies with a discussion prohibition, therefore tabuisiert. It came to an adjustment to the “spirit of the time”, a creeping deformation of the formerly critical Impetus ‘. Judge stresses: “one ejected the man, who made clear openly and unmistakably that the guidance conception” of a people and a race community coordinated by authority obedience faced “the people picture of the Psychoanalyse irreconcilably (…) not when one, which had published dangerous truth, became but as a Abtruenniger realm eliminated.” (S. 37f.) The fact that this is not by any means a “historical” discussion showed itself at the latest in the 80’s. A “official” apology for the opportunistischen Hinauswurf of realm, a rehablitation William of realm, never gave it. In 20. Chapter again takes up judge this topic, in very original way. In “Willy Brandt, Wilhelm realm and the Psychoanalyse” describes to judge the motives of his commitment for Willy Brandt at the beginning of the 70’s. Judge was impressed by Brandts reliability. This reported it once that it participated in William of realm seminars during their common emigration time in Oslo as inspired listeners. Its psychoanalytischen interpretations of fascism Brandt appeared as most interesting and convincingly. Judge describes now a scene, those its attempt to let traces of the progressive origins of the Psychoanalyse become also still in the present reliably effectively in consolidated form concretized:
“that it by the way, still nevertheless still wrung out as a chancellor, after a sun-daily telephone call the funds for the psychiatry reform Minister of Finance Matthoefer, already painted, is only besides mentioned. So William realm was involved as a kind catalyst in the end nevertheless still indirectly in a meaningful health-political initiative in the country, which had driven him out. It might have been in its sense.” (P. 174)
Back to the chronological structure of the book. Judge reminded of the Antisemitismus symposium organized by Simmel 1944 in San Francisco, where some refugees Psychoanalytiker and sociologists spoke again klarsichtige analyses of the Antisemitismus in the midst of the war. This culture-critical tradition of the Psychoanalyse stepped however within the analytic condition organizations ever more into the background. With reference to the experiences of the emigrants begging home, feathers/springs, now mountain and Ekstein with the Psychoanalyse in the USA draws feathers/springs in “American misunderstandings”, “the Medizinalisierung of the Psychoanalyse” as well as “the fall of the founder spirit” very in-usually and convincingly the further historical process of the establishment, but evenly also for the society-critical renunciation of the Psychoanalyse in Germany and the USA after. For this summarizing judge stresses:
“history knows innumerable examples for the fact that revolutionary mental movements solidify only for erlahmen or, but finally courses accept, which perhaps even still contrary-run their original or announced intentions. That leads to identity crises, whose processing tends to succeed the less, the more persistent it is denied.
The Psychoanalyse ended up into such a crisis, prepared by cooperating outside pursuit and internal adjustment. The Medizinalisierung was only one symptom, not the cause of the change. The analysts became better, them selected for their institutes better candidates. Of passionately or William realm one would not no more have taken up after the war surely engaged young people of the impact of a Siegfried Berne field.” (P. 77)
Accordingly judge places already in the preface of his book sobering up firmly: “many colleagues do not wish it evenly except the argument with cost objectives and professional associations again into political conflicts to be ever entangled.” (P. 13) and: “of a psychoanalytischen movement one can hardly still speak anyhow.” (P. 10)
In some further chapters, approximately into “own search for orientation”, judge draws the development of the Psychoanalyse in the Federal Republic of the postwar period after, as he experienced her. Afterwards three chapters follow over the “wiedergeburt of a political Psychoanalyse”. Judge portraetiert in scarce courses the life and work of Alexander Mitscherlich , Marie of long ones and in particular Paul Parin and that recently the deceased Goldy Parin Matthèy , which he experienced as positive counter acting forces against the described Entpolitisierung of the Psychoanalyse. As Berne field, Fenichel, Simmel and realm, in addition, begging home, feathers/springs and Ekstein for refuge Eberhard judges historically important personalities are, that along-formulated and authentically lived the culture-critical substance of the Psychoanalyse, then represent Alexander Mitscherlich, Marie of long ones as well as Paul Parin and Goldy Parin Matthèy for it the emancipatory “founder spirit” the Psychoanalyse. Accordingly judge already attached the purchase in the preface for the title of the book, its “doubts against adjustment” and stressed: “all four had proven the ability to fascist terror in the midst of of Nazi and to retain itself by adjustment anpassungsverweigerung from the defenselessness opposite the unconscious adjustment mechanisms.” (P. 13) and in the chapter “, Parins studies taken, judge emphasizes underestimated adjustment mechanisms”. Roland Kaufhold.
Publications among other things:
“parents, child and neurosis” (63), “patient family” (70), “the group” (72), “training aim solidarity” (74), “fleeing or withstanding” (76), “the God complex” (79), “to the psychology of the peace” (82), “the chance of the conscience” (86), “handling fear” (92), “who wants to hate not to suffer, must: To the epidemic disease of the force “(93), “doubts against adjustment. Psychoanalyse and politics “(95), “continued to know as an Einstein no longer” (97), “wanderer between the fronts. Thought and memories “(2000). And many more books in german.
Honors among other things:
Research price of Swiss society for Psychosomati medicine (70), Prix Armade Nice (80), Urania medal (93).
Considerably it takes part in the reform of the German psychiatry and social psychiatry for which he received 1980 the Theodor Heuss price. 2001 Fairness fairness-Ehrenpreis of the Fairness donation.
Offices for membership:
from 1964 to 1968: Chairman of the German Psychoanalyti combination;
He is a chairman of the association for psychosocial research and therapy, pouring;
Since 1973 it belongs to the PEN center of the Federal Republic.
Other links writing about Horst-Eberhard Richter:
Here a link to the Books from other autors working, together with Horst-Eberhard Richter, in the ‘International Foundation for the Survival and Development of Humanity’.